History of sound recording culture includes:
- history of recorded music
- ways recordings were made
- ways recordings influenced other aspects of society

- recordings have had a tremendous influence over society and culture
recording is the least-studied aspect of motion pictures, television -- thought as visual media.
- recording is more than entertainment technology....part of doing business in many industries
- the making of sound recordings is a part of the unfortunate modern tendency toward surveillance.....like the internet!

The Cultural Impact of Recorded Music:
- sound recording has been a major part in our culture since the late 19th century. It started becoming more important
- When it was invented, the actual listening to the record machine was an amazing and surprising experience.
- Edison was "taken aback" when the prototype tinfoil phonograph worked.
- It was astonishing at the time how a machine had the ability to capture the human voice
- not long after using the tinfoil recorder at edison's laboratory at Menlo Park, NJ, edison demonstrated it publicly in NYC approx. 50 miles away).
- after the NY tmes heard about it in Dec. 1877, a witness wrote "it is impossible to listen to the mechanical speech without his experiencing the idea that his senses are deceiving him."
- the whole excitement wore off....the use of the phonograph fell.
- only achieved limited acceptance as an office dictation machine in late 1880's....after this the manager of Pacific Phonograph organized the 1st coin- operated phonograph in a saloon in late 1889.
- only played one song, this device helped start the modern music industry
- Pacific Phonograph- came up with an idea of using the phonograph to play back commercially made recordings.....followed the examples of "the coin- operated player piano, music boxes, and other arcade-type entertainment technologies"
- Louis Glass of Pacific Phonograph reported in 1890 that each of the 2 coin-operated phonographs installed made about $1,000 in 5 months....amazing cause money was gathered 5 cents at a time.

Public Criticism of Recorded Music in the 19th Century:
- Popular music rapidly became the largest selling category of phonograph records from 1890-1915....the phonograph was also used for speeches, sermons, and voice recordings
- "phonograph parlors" arcades with many coin- operated phonographs where customers privately listened to many recordings ......shifted in to low priced home machines
- military bands were the top- selling cylinders around 1900
- military band recordings: dance music.....cause of way people danced to it like waltzes, polkas, cakewalks
- Most famous leader of military band: John Philip Sousa.....many doubts about the phonograph and publicly denounced recording recordings as inferior to live music.
- a decade of campaigning against recorded music began .... sponsored by music critics, social theorists, and musicians.
- social theorist: argued, real importance of early phonograph was that it transformed the way people listened to music.
- music was once a unique, live performance, experienced in public by a group of people.....now heard privately in home and could hear the same performance over and over
- "the listening experience was cheapened"

Improving The Social Status of Recorded Music
- people were more exposed to a wider range of music...listen to more music than before
- performers in Europe could now share their music (make their music heard) anywhere in the world...as long as there was a phonograph
- many believed that the mass- duplication of the best available music would result in a social uplift
- In US and Europe, continued to by popular music "of that kind that few reformers considered uplifting".. ignored what they called good music.
- In Western World, good music was more appealing to public, in the US the "improvement of the public's taste became something of a reform movement" supported by music critics and recording industry
- Record manufacturers (Victor, Columbia, Edison's company" responded by advertising good music more heavily.....offering wide variety of it in their catalogs
- some record companies (like Victor) created departments to promote music appreciation in colleges and schools, "developing special packages of records and programmed courses of instructions"
- it is said that the phonograph degraded musical taste by nothing that good live music wasn't always readily available to millllllions of people in nations like the US , who lived in towns and outside of the major cities
- phonograph provided "a link to urban culture good and bad, including the 'serious' music preferred by highbrow music critics."
- "However, by the time it was possible to track record sales according to the type of music, it was clear that the public still preferred popular music."
- the record companies didn't do anything to discourage the sales of popular recordings, ......they largely supported and influenced their business.

Race Music
- phonograph in 20th century- important role in race relations in US
- jazz music started to filter into the mainstream record catalogs...but usually recorded and performed by whites
- a lot of 'coon' and ethnic recordings.
- coon recordings were often presented as comedy
- used stereotyped black- sounding voices for entertainment --- "intended to be a patronizing but benevolently humorous manner." according to a historian
- from our perspective today, these recordings can offend us
- compared to another popular turn- of- the century type recording--- humorous stereotypes...."hick" recordings
- the 'coon' recordings reflected an "analogous type of attitude among the white population"
- the 'coon' records reinforced bad stereotypes about blacks

Records and "Cultural Imperialism"
- later jazz recordings "helped bridge the gap between the 2 groups"
- records more effective than radio broadcasts )late 1920s) in sharing culture between groups, because usually the content broadcast via radio was controlled by one or a small number of companies or govt. agencies.
- in US, a corporate oligopoly controlled the content that was broadcasted so programming decisions made were highly influential.
- African- American culture was excluded
- Mass production/ distribution of WEstern music form of 'cultural imperialism', spreading music and US and European values to the world
- POP music icons are known world wide, and frequently criticized for the Western moral values that music can convey

The History of Recording Technology
- creation of phonograph: songs had to be 2-3 min to fit the cylinders
- created new restrictions
- control their singing not too loud, not too soft. or "else they risked over-driving the recording mechanism or singling too softly to be recorded"
- some instruments wouldn't record well.. had to be eliminated
- early phonograph- couldn't capture sibilant words....letter s
- painos placed on higher platforms to be close to horn, special metal horns attached to instruments like Stroh violin

- 1930's to 1940's....refinement of electrical recording proccesses like the microphone! were placed inside instruments like piano...so it could be heard by large crowds
- with many microphones....electronic mixing "miking" a singer and a band with two separate microphones, a recording engineer could adjust the level of each to create a pleasing sound.
- techniques such as mixing multiple microphones led to recordings that sounded less and less like the original performance, even though the were very pleasing
- LIVE RECORDING
-live radio recording in 1930s (re-broadcast later)
- world war 2: recordings captured in large numbers, recorded on special disks, sent overseas to troops ....turned into consumer discs
- Some of the "classic" early live recordings were made by Glen Miller and his orchestra in the late 1930s, one in Carnegie Hall and in an auditorium at Asbury Park,NJ.
- These records established the model for the live recording, which included audience sounds, the commentary of the performers, and often improvisational performances.

Hi Fi and REcordings
- 1930s, music enthusiasts from NY and london, formed the audience/ market for "high fidelity" audio
- one radio station in NY had special high quality radio receivers custom made and sold them to music enthusiasts
-other experimented with improved technologies like the Phillips- Miller recording system
- achieve perfect sound!
- jukebox in 1930s far better than phonograph

RECORDING AND "SURVEILLANCE SOCIETY"
- "surveillance society" has be developing throughout the years , aided by new tecnhologies
- like telephone recorder
-
PEER TO PEER P2P
- peer to peer downloading
- makes media available to other network participants
- without a central coordinator by servers or stable hosts
- Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources
- thiss application was poupoularized by napster